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PART III. Pachycereus pringlei / La Isla de Cardón




Chapter 2


"But just as he'd received the legends of Amazons... recycled forms of early, nuanced depictions of foreign lands." What significance could the discoveries of Renaissance humanists possibly hold for a man who spent more time in conquest than he did with the classics? Did the conquistador consult his Herodotus when the massacre of Cholula was close at hand? Perhaps not, but the lineages of readers are neither difficult to establish nor even especially long: for instance, Cortés read Columbus, Columbus read the cosmographer Pierre d’Ailly, and d’Ailly, in turn, read the classical ethnographers.



Chapter 3


In a subsection of The Origin called "characters of trifling importance", Darwin wrote this: "Variations neither useful nor injurious would not be affected by natural selection, and would be left either a fluctuating element, as perhaps we see in certain polymorphic species, or would ultimately become fixed…."



Chapter 6


Concerning Cortés's political struggle with the crown's bureaucracy, see R.R. Miller (1974), as well as Pagden's introduction to his translation of the letters.. The crown's new contract with Cortes is on page 109 of W.M. Mathes (1973).


"thirty married men... apothecary." This is from Lockhart's translation of Bernal Diaz.

"...the island of thistles—La Isla de Cardón." See Henry Raup Wagner (1929), particularly the list on p. 304.





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Bullock, S.H., Martijena, N.E., Webb, R.H. and Turner, R.M., 2005. Twentieth century demographic changes in cirio and cardon in Baja California, Mexico. Journal of Biogeography, 32(1): 127-143.


Chave, J., 2004. Neutral theory and community ecology. Ecology Letters, 7(3): 241-253.


Clark-Tapia, R. and Molina-Freaner, F., 2003. The genetic structure of a columnar cactus with a disjunct distribution: Stenocereus gummosus in the Sonoran desert. Heredity, 90(6): 443-450.


Cortes, H.P., Anthony, 2001. Hernan Cortes: Letters from Mexico. Yale Nota Bene, New Haven.


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Ctesias of Cnidus; Nichols, A., 2008. The Complete Fragments of Ctesias of Cnidus: Translation and Commentary with an Introduction. University of Florida.


Darwin, C., 1859. On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. John Murray, London.

Darwin, C., 1872. The Origin of Species, 6th ed. John Murray, London.


Davis, L.G., 2003. Geoarchaeology and geochronology of pluvial lake Chapala, Baja California, Mexico. Geoarchaeology-an International Journal, 18(2): 205-223.


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Elliott, J.H., 1970, 1998. The Old World and The New. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


Ellis, R., 2005. No Turning Back: The Life and Death of Animal Species. Harper Perennial, New York.


Escoto-Rodriguez, M. and Bullock, S.H., 2002. Long-term growth rates of cirio (Fouquieria columnaris), a giant succulent of the Sonoran Desert in Baja California. Journal of Arid Environments, 50(4): 593-611.


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Fleming, T.H., Maurice, S. and Hamrick, J.L., 1998. Geographic variation in the breeding system and the evolutionary stability of trioecy in Pachycereus pringlei (Cactaceae). Evolutionary Ecology, 12(3): 279-289.


Fleming, T.H., Sahley, C.T., Holland, J.N., Nason, J.D. and Hamrick, J.L., 2001. Sonoran Desert columnar cacti and the evolution of generalized pollination systems. Ecological Monographs, 71(4): 511-530.


Francovizcaino, E., Goldstein, G. and Ting, I.P., 1990. Comparative Gas-Exchange of Leaves and Bark in 3 Stem Succulents of Baja-California. American Journal of Botany, 77(10): 1272-1278.


Godinez-Alvarez, H. and Valiente-Banuet, A., 2000. Fruit-feeding behavior of the bats Leptonycteris curasoae and Choeronycteris mexicana in flight cage experiments: Consequences for dispersal of columnar cactus seeds. Biotropica, 32(3): 552-556.


Grafton, A.T., Shelford, A.G. and Siraisi, N.G., 1995. New Worlds, Ancients Texts: The Power of Tradition and the Shock of Discovery. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.


Hartmann, S., Nason, J.D. and Bhattacharya, D., 2001. Extensive ribosomal DNA genic variation in the columnar cactus Lophocereus. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 53(2): 124-134.


Herodotus; Macaulay, G.C., 2006. An Account of Egypt, being the second book of his histories called Euterpe. Project Gutenberg:


Hudson, R.R., 1983. Properties of a neutral allele model with intragenic recombination. Theor Popul Biol, 23(2): 183-201.


Keeley, J.E. and Rundel, P.W., 2003. Evolution of CAM and C-4 carbon-concentrating mechanisms. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 164(3): S55-S77.


Kimura, M., 1991. Recent development of the neutral theory viewed from the Wrightian tradition of theoretical population genetics. PNAS, 88: 5969-5973.


Kuhn, T.S., 1996. The structure of scientific revolutions. University of CHICAGO PRESS, Chicago.


Kulaev, I.S. and Kulakovskaya, T.V., 1999. Current concept of the endosymbiotic origin of eukaryotic cells. Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology, 35(3): 319-325.


Leigh, E.G.J., Davidar, P., Dick, C.W., Puyravaud, J.-P., Terborgh, J., ter Steege, H. and


Wright, S.J., 2004. Why do some tropical forests have so many species of trees? Biotropica, 36(4): 447-473.


Leliaert, F., Smith, D.R., Moreau, H., Herron, M.D., Verbruggen, H., Delwiche, C.F. and De

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Lewontin, R.C., 2001. The Triple Helix: Gene, Organisms and Environment. Harvard University Press.


Bernal Diaz del Castillo; Lockhart, J.I., 1632,1844. The Memories of the Conquistador Bernal Díaz del Castillo Written by Himself Containing a True and Full Account of the Discovery and Conquest of Mexico and New Spain. J. Hatchard and Son, London.


Lynch, M. and Hill, W.G., 1986. Phenotypic evolution by neutral mutation. Evolution, 40: 915-935.


Mandeville, John; de Outremeuse, Jean, 1961. Mandeville's Travels. Pub. for the Early English Text Society, by K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., ltd.


Martin, W. and Schnarrenberger, C., 1997. The evolution of the Calvin cycle from prokaryotic to eukaryotic chromosomes: a case study of functional redundancy in ancient pathways through endosymbiosis. Current Genetics, 32(1): 1-18.


Mathes, W.M., 1973. The Conquistador in California: 1535. The Voyage of Fernando Cortés to Baja California in Chronicles and Documents. Baja California Travels Series, 31. Dawson's Book Shop, Los Angeles.

Miller, R.R., 1974. Cortes and the first attempt to colonize California. California Hist. Soc. Qtly., 53(1): 4 - 53.


Molina-Freamer, F., Cervantes-Salas, M., Morales-Romero, D., Buchmann, S. and


Fleming, T.H., 2003. Does the pollinator abundance hypothesis explain geographic variation in the breeding system of Pachycereus pringlei? International Journal of Plant Sciences, 164(3): 383-393.


Monson, R.K., 2003. Gene duplication, neofunctionalization, and the evolution of C-4 photosynthesis. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 164(3): S43-S54.


Nason, J.D., Hamrick, J.L. and Fleming, T.H., 2002. Historical vicariance and postglacial colonization effects on the evolution of genetic structure in Lophocereus, a Sonoran Desert columnar cactus. Evolution, 56(11): 2214-2226.


Nobel, P.S. and Zutta, B.R., 2005. Morphology, ecophysiology, and seedling establishment for Fouquieria splendens in the northwestern Sonoran Desert. Journal of Arid Environments, 62(2): 251-265.


Pliny the Elder; Bostock, J., and Henry, T., 1890. The Natural History of Pliny, translated, with copious notes and illustrations, by John Bostock and H.T. Riley, II. William Clowe and Sons, Ltd, London.


Polk, D., 1995. The Island of California: A History of the Myth. University of Nebraska Press.


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Sage, R.F., 2002. Variation in the k(cat) of Rubisco in C-3 and C-4 plants and some implications for photosynthetic performance at high and low temperature. Journal of Experimental Botany, 53(369): 609-620.


Schmitt, A.K., Martin, C.E., Loeschen, V.S. and Schmitt, A., 1993. Midsummer Gas-Exchange and Water Relations of 7 C3 Species in a Desert Wash in Baja-California, Mexico. Journal of Arid Environments, 24(2): 155-164.


Schultheis, L.M. and Baldwin, B.G., 1999. Molecular phylogenetics of Fouquieriaceae: Evidence from nuclear rDNA ITS studies. American Journal of Botany, 86(4): 578-589.


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Yoon, H.S., Hackett, J.D. and Bhattacharya, D., 2006. A genomic and phylogenetic perspective on endosymbiosis and algal origin. Journal of Applied Phycology, 18(3-5): 475-481.



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