PART V. Canis familiaris / Enduring Youth

 

 

 

ERRATUM:

 

Arrrgghhh... the lower figure on page 183 contains a confusing error. The adult stage of development should look like a halfbeak, not like a needlefish.

 

Chapter 2

 

If you have begun to suspect that there are cases in which this ranking procedure based on comparisons with an ideal does not actually work to give ‘lower’ species an older common ancestor, you are right. In each of our examples, the groups of species exhibited a nice, nested structure: dogs evolved from (or, one could say, within) mammals; mammals evolved from (or within) reptiles. The holothurians, echinoderms, and deuterostomes show the same nested arrangement. But if the groups being compared are not contiguous in the tree of life, then groups that are lower—farther from the ideal—will not necessarily have older ancestors. Agassiz, careful empiricist that he was, realized that when he tried to compare distant lineages, the parallel between his ideal hierarchy and the fossil record began to break down. Recapitulation, he suggested, could be seen only within certain major lineages, and not between them.

 

Chapter 5

 

Figures are based on Lovejoy (2004).

 

Sources

 

Abouheif, E., 1997. Developmental genetics and homology: A hierarchical approach. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 12(10): 405-408.

 

Agassiz, L. and Gould, A.A., 1857. Principles of Zoology: touching the structure, development, distribution, and natural arrangement of the races of animals, living and extinct. Gould and Lincoln, Boston.

 

Alberch, P., Gould, S.J., Oster, G.F. and Wake, D.B., 1979. Size and shape in ontogeny and phylogeny. Paleobiology, 5(3): 296-317.

 

Anderson, T.M., vonHoldt, B.M., Candille, S.I., Musiani, M., Greco, C., Stahler, D.R., Smith, D.W., Padhukasahasram, B., Randi, E., Leonard, J.A., Bustamante, C.D., Ostrander, E.A., Tang, H., Wayne, R.K. and Barsh, G.S., 2009. Molecular and Evolutionary History of Melanism in North American Gray Wolves. Science, 323(5919): 1339-1343.

 

Bowler, P.J., 1989. Evolution: The History of an Idea. University of California Press.

 

Boyko, A.R., Boyko, R.H., Boyko, C.M., Parker, H.G., Castelhano, M., Corey, L., Degenhardt, J.D., Auton, A., Hedimbi, M., Kityo, R., Ostrander, E.A., Schoenebeck, J., Todhunter, R.J., Jones, P. and Bustamante, C.D., 2009. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(33): 13903-13908.

 

Darwin, C., 1859. On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. John Murray, London.

 

Darwin, C., 1872. The Origin of Species, 6th ed. John Murray, London.

 

Drake, A.G. and Klingenberg, C.P., 2010. Large-Scale Diversification of Skull Shape in Domestic Dogs: Disparity and Modularity. American Naturalist, 175(3): 289-301.

 

Germonpre, M., Sablin, M.V., Stevens, R.E., Hedges, R.E.M., Hofreiter, M., Stiller, M. and

 

Despres, V.R., 2009. Fossil dogs and wolves from Palaeolithic sites in Belgium, the Ukraine and Russia: osteometry, ancient DNA and stable isotopes. Journal of Archaeological Science, 36(2): 473-490.

 

Goodwin, D., Bradshaw, J.W.S. and Wickens, S.M., 1997. Paedomorphosis affects agonistic visual signals of domestic dogs. Animal Behaviour, 53: 297-304.

 

Gould, S.J., 1977. Ontogeny and Phylogeny. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

 

Gould, S.J., 1982. Change in developmental timing as a mechanism of macroevolution. In: J.T. Bonner (Editor), Evolution and Development. Dahlem Konferenzen. Springer-Verlag, New York.

 

Gray, M.M., Granka, J.M., Bustamante, C.D., Sutter, N.B., Boyko, A.R., Zhu, L., Ostrander, E.A. and Wayne, R., 2009. Linkage Disequilibrium and Demographic History of Wild and Domestic Canids. Genetics, 181(4): 1493-1505.

 

Gray, M.M., Sutter, N.B., Ostrander, E.A. and Wayne, R.K., 2010. The IGF1 small dog haplotype is derived from Middle Eastern grey wolves (vol 8, 2010). Bmc Biology, 8.

 

Hare, B., Brown, M., Williamson, C. and Tomasello, M., 2002. The domestication of social cognition in dogs. Science, 298(5598): 1634-1636.

 

Hare, B., Plyusnina, I., Ignacio, N., Schepina, O., Stepika, A., Wrangham, R. and Trut, L., 2005. Social cognitive evolution in captive foxes is a correlated by-product of experimental domestication. Current Biology, 15(3): 226-230.

 

Hare, B., Rosati, A., Kaminski, J., Brauer, J., Call, J. and Tomasello, M., 2010. The domestication hypothesis for dogs' skills with human communication: a response to

 

Udell et al. (2008) and Wynne et al. (2008). Animal Behaviour, 79(2): E1-E6.
Honeycutt, R.L., 2010. Unraveling the mysteries of dog evolution. Bmc Biology, 8.

 

King, S.J., 2004. Relative timing of ontogenetic events in primates. Journal of Zoology (London), 264(Part 3): 267-280.

 

Leonard, J.A., Wayne, R.K., Wheeler, J., Valadez, R., Guillen, S. and Vila, C., 2002. Ancient DNA evidence for Old World origin of New World dogs. Science, 298(5598): 1613-1616.

 

Lindblad-Toh, K., Wade, C.M., Mikkelsen, T.S., Karlsson, E.K., Jaffe, D.B., Kamal, M., Clamp, M., Chang, J.L., Kulbokas, E.J., Zody, M.C., Mauceli, E., Xie, X.H., Breen, M., Wayne, R.K., Ostrander, E.A., Ponting, C.P., Galibert, F., Smith, D.R., deJong, P.J., Kirkness, E., Alvarez, P., Biagi, T., Brockman, W., Butler, J., Chin, C.W., Cook, A., Cuff, J., Daly, M.J., DeCaprio, D., Gnerre, S., Grabherr, M., Kellis, M., Kleber, M., Bardeleben, C., Goodstadt, L., Heger, A., Hitte, C., Kim, L., Koepfli, K.P., Parker, H.G., Pollinger, J.P., Searle, S.M.J., Sutter, N.B., Thomas, R., Webber, C., Lander, E.S. and Plat, B.I.G.S., 2005. Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog. Nature, 438(7069): 803-819.

 

Lovejoy, A.O., 2009. The Great Chain of Being: A Study of the History of an Idea. Harvard University Press.

 

Lovejoy, N.R., 2000. Reinterpreting recapitulation: systematics of needlefishes and their allies (Teleostei: Beloniformes). Evolution, 54: 1349-1362.

 

Lovejoy, N.R., Iranpour, M. and Colette, B.B., 2004. Phylogeny and jaw ontogeny of Beloniform fishes. Integr. Comp. Biol., 44: 366-377.

 

McKinney, M.L., 1998. The juvenilized ape myth - Our "overdeveloped" brain. Bioscience, 48(2): 109-116.

 

McKinney, M.L., 1999. Heterochrony: beyond words. Paleobiology, 25(2): 149-153.

 

Miklosi, A., Kubinyi, E., Topal, J., Gacsi, M., Viranyi, Z. and Csanyi, V., 2003. A simple reason for a big difference: Wolves do not look back at humans, but dogs do. Current Biology, 13(9): 763-766.

 

Morey, D.F., 2006. Burying key evidence: the social bond between dogs and people. Journal of Archaeological Science, 33(2): 158-175.

 

Müller, J.F.T., 1864. Für Darwin. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig.

 

Pang, J.F., Kluetsch, C., Zou, X.J., Zhang, A.B., Luo, L.Y., Angleby, H., Ardalan, A., Ekstrom, C., Skollermo, A., Lundeberg, J., Matsumura, S., Leitner, T., Zhang, Y.P. and Savolainen, P., 2009. mtDNA Data Indicate a Single Origin for Dogs South of Yangtze River, Less Than 16,300 Years Ago, from Numerous Wolves. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 26(12): 2849-2864.

 

Penin, X., Berge, C. and Baylac, M., 2002. Ontogenetic study of the skull in modern humans and the common chimpanzees: Neotenic hypothesis reconsidered with a tridimensional Procrustes analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 118(1): 50-62.

 

Range, F., Horn, L., Viranyi, Z. and Huber, L., 2009. The absence of reward induces inequity aversion in dogs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(1): 340-345.

 

Richards, R.J., 2009. The Meaning of Evolution: The Morphological Construction and Ideological Reconstruction of Darwin's Theory. University of Chicago Press.

 

Sablin, M.V. and Khlopachev, G.A., 2002. The earliest ice age dogs: Evidence from Eliseevichi I. Current Anthropology, 43(5): 795-799.

 

Savolainen, P., Zhang, Y.P., Luo, J., Lundeberg, J. and Leitner, T., 2002. Genetic evidence for an East Asian origin of domestic dogs. Science, 298(5598): 1610-1613.

 

Smith, B.P. and Litchfield, C.A., 2010. Dingoes (Canis dingo) can use human social cues to locate hidden food. Animal Cognition, 13(2): 367-376.

 

Topal, J., Gacsi, M., Miklosi, A., Viranyi, Z., Kubinyi, E. and Csanyi, V., 2005. Attachment to humans: a comparative study on hand-reared wolves and differently socialized dog puppies. Animal Behaviour, 70: 1367-1375.

 

Topal, J., Gergely, G., Erdohegyi, A., Csibra, G. and Miklosi, A., 2009. Differential Sensitivity to Human Communication in Dogs, Wolves, and Human Infants. Science, 325(5945): 1269-1272.

 

Topal, J., Miklosi, A., Sumegi, Z. and Kis, A., 2010. Response to Comments on "Differential Sensitivity to Human Communication in Dogs, Wolves, and Human Infants". Science, 329(5988).

 

Trut, L., Oskina, I. and Kharlamova, A., 2009. Animal evolution during domestication: the domesticated fox as a model. Bioessays, 31(3): 349-360.

 

Udell, M.A.R. and Wynne, C.D.L., 2010. Ontogeny and phylogeny: both are essential to human-sensitive behaviour in the genus Canis. Animal Behaviour, 79(2): E9-E14.

 

Vas, J., Topal, J., Gacsi, M., Miklosi, A. and Csanyi, V., 2005. A friend or an enemy? Dogs' reaction to an unfamiliar person showing behavioural cues of threat and friendliness at different times. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 94(1-2): 99-115.

 

Vila, C., Savolainen, P., Maldonado, J.E., Amorim, I.R., Rice, J.E., Honeycutt, R.L., Crandall, K.A., Lundeberg, J. and Wayne, R.K., 1997. Multiple and ancient origins of the domestic dog. Science, 276(5319): 1687-1689.

 

vonHoldt, B.M., Pollinger, J.P., Lohmueller, K.E., Han, E.J., Parker, H.G., Quignon, P., Degenhardt, J.D., Boyko, A.R., Earl, D.A., Auton, A., Reynolds, A., Bryc, K., Brisbin, A., Knowles, J.C., Mosher, D.S., Spady, T.C., Elkahloun, A., Geffen, E., Pilot, M., Jedrzejewski, W., Greco, C., Randi, E., Bannasch, D., Wilton, A., Shearman, J., Musiani, M., Cargill, M., Jones, P.G., Qian, Z.W., Huang, W., Ding, Z.L., Zhang, Y.P., Bustamante, C.D., Ostrander, E.A., Novembre, J. and Wayne, R.K., 2010. Genome-wide SNP and haplotype analyses reveal a rich history underlying dog domestication. Nature, 464(7290): 898-U109.

 

Wayne, R.K., 1986. Cranial Morphology of Domestic and Wild Canids - the Influence of Development on Morphological Change. Evolution, 40(2): 243-261.

 

Zeder, M.A., Emshwiller, E., Smith, B.D. and Bradley, D.G., 2006. Documenting domestication: the intersection of genetics and archaeology. Trends in Genetics, 22(3): 139-155.